General

Define and Measure 150dBFS Dynamic Range (Product Note #003, 3 pages, 219 KB)
Describes how Crystal Instruments defines the dynamic range of the measurement system and the advanced capabilities of CI products. Read online here.

Industrial Ethernet Switches for Spider Systems (Product Note #005, 2 pages, 291 KB)
Requirements for Industrial Ethernet switches for use with the Spider Vibration controller system. Read online here.

Applying ASAM-ODS in Crystal Instruments Products (Product Note #014, 5 pages, 288.23 KB)
ASAM-ODS is a new industrial standard of data format that are particularly designed for dynamic measurement systems. Read online here.

Anti-Aliasing Filter and Phase Match (Product Note #021, 5 pages, 636 KB)
Crystal Instruments is among the very first companies using sigma-delta converters in early 90s. This paper discussed the sigma-delta converter, anti-aliasing filter and phase match issues in a DSA instrument. Read online here.

What am I going to do with 128 Channels? (Product Note #026, 4 pages, 986 KB)
Applications of a high channel count system are discussed. Read online here.

Dynamic Signal Analysis Basics (Product Note #001, 32 pages, 1.1 MB)
Describes the basic dynamic signal analysis theory including Fourier Transform, data windowing, linear spectrum, power spectrum, cross spectrum, FRF and coherence, averaging, transient capture and hammer test, overlapping process, SDOF system. Read online here.

Dynamic Signal Analysis Advanced (Product Note #002, 75 pages, 1.85 MB)
Describes the advanced dynamic signal analysis theory including swept sine test with tracking filter, real-time digital filters, octave analysis, sound level meters, order tracking analysis, automated test, shock response spectrum analysis. Read online here.

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Dynamic Signal Analysis

FRF Limiting Function (Product Note #020, 5 pages, 1.14 MB)
When running a test to measure the FRF of a structure, it may need to check the measured data against a pre-defined limit profile to see whether the measured signal has any point or portion over the limit. This can be done through the so-called FRF Limiting Function. Read online here.

The Modern Maturation of Machinery Monitoring (Product Note #008, 4 pages, 335 KB)
This article discusses the history of machinery monitoring and modern advances today. Read online here.

Wyle Labs Acoustic Testing with the CoCo-80 Acoustic Analyzer (Product Note #011, 3 pages, 410 KB) Wyle Labs, in California, uses the CoCo for acoustic testing. Read online here.

Vibration Criteria for Facilities with Sensitive Equipment (Product Note #012, 6 pages, 415 KB)
How vibration criteria are used to classify environmental vibration in facilities with sensitive equipment. Read online here.

Audio Functions (Product Note #013, 5 pages, 211.95 KB)
This paper presents the advanced audio functions, including microphone, earphone and voice annotation. Read online here.

Manage Dynamic Signal Analysis Signals using Database (Product Note #016, 11 pages, 1.45 MB)
Describes how thousands of data files are conveniently managed by the EDM database tool. Read online here.

Time Synchronous Average(Product Note #017, 5 pages, 422 KB)
Describes how the time synchronous averaging is applied to the rotating machine analysis. Read online here.

Configurable Signal Analysis(Product Note #018, Paper published in Sound & Vibration Magazine, 3MB) This feature allows the user to dynamically configure the DSP functions so that data processing flow can be customized from application to application. Read online here.

Consolidation of Dynamic Signal Analyzer and Vibration Data Collector (Presentation, 5MB)
Thoughts behind creating the CoCo-80: integrating a dynamic signal analyzer, a data recorder and a vibration data collector into one package.

An Ear for Gears - Understanding Gearbox Signatures (Product Note #022, 6 pages,1.31 MB)
Speed reducers and other gearboxes are common industrial components. Monitoring their case vibration with accelerometers is an effective means of detecting problems within. Read online here.

Coherence Function - A Brief Review (Product Note #023, 4 pages, 1.18 MB)
A brief review of the Coherence Function and its applications. Read online here.

Data Recording and EDM Post-Analyzer – the Thinking Man’s Alternative (Product Note #024, 3 pages, 4.04 MB)CI offers EDM Post- Analyzer software, a powerful adjunct to your Spider-based analysis tool kit, allowing you to analyze recordings made using your Spider front-end modules. Read online here.

A New Approach to an Old Sensor – A Spider Tames the Strain Gage (Product Note #025, 4 pages, 2.28 MB) The Spider-80SG is the first really modern piece of strain gage instrumentation to be commercially developed in decades. Read online here.

Vibration Data Collector: Signal Analysis (Product Note #019, 32 pages, 0.7 MB)
Describes algorithms used in vibration analyzers, including computing the RMS, Peak, Peak-Peak values, FFT spectrum, demodulation spectrum and digital integration for transforming acceleration into velocity or displacement. Read online here.

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Vibration Control

What's Required to Bring Vibration Testing In House? (5 MB) Cover Story for March 2016 Sound and Vibration Magazine

History of Vibration Control Systems (Product Note #004, published in Sound & Vibration Magazine, 0.4MB) This article discusses the four generations of digital vibration control systems developed by US companies in the past 4 decades. Read online here.

Understanding Random Vibration Testing Signals (Product Note #027, 6 pages, 2.43 MB)
Random vibration testing signals are explained and discussed for the testing professional. Read online here.

Using Fatigue Damage Spectrum with Vibration Control (Product Note #028, 3 pages, 2.10 MB)
Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) allows users to compare the potential damage caused by different Random profiles, swept Sine profiles or a combination of both. Read online here.

Visualizing Mode Shapes with a Stroboscope and Cola Output (Product Note #029, 3 pages, 1.44 MB) Product application note discussing the use of a stroboscope to visualize mode shapes with Crystal Instruments' Spider systems. Read online here.

Random Control Feature: Non-linear Control (Product Note #030, 3 pages, 756 KB) Crystal Instruments’ Random Control implements an advanced algorithm which compensates for the effect of non-linearity in the control loop, regardless of whether it is caused by the type of shaker system or the resonance of the device under test. Read online here.

Sine - Resonance Search Track & Dwell Tracking (RSTD) (Product Note #31, 5 pages, 878 KB) This product note demonstrates the use of Crystal Instruments’ Spider 80X along with EDM (Engineering Data Management) software to determine the resonant frequency of a test object with a very high Q and dwell on the resonant frequency along with tracking the changes in the resonant frequency using the phase value. Read online here.

Random Control Feature: Multi-Resolution Control (Product Note #32, 6 pages, 945 KB) The Multi-Resolution function perfectly fulfills the requirements of many Random profiles having details in the low frequency range and up to 2kHz. Adequate loop time, spectrum refresh rate, and storage are maintained without using high resolution (large block size) that is not needed in the high frequency. Read online here.

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Modal Testing

Basics of Structural Vibration Testing and Analysis (Product Note #006, 14 pages, 2.69 MB) 
This application note provides an introduction to the basic concepts of structural vibration. It presents the fundamentals and definitions in terms of the basic concepts. It also discusses practical applications and provides real world examples. Read online here.

Basics of Modal Testing and Analysis (Product Note #007, 12 pages, 4.15 MB) 
This paper discusses the concept of modal analysis, its applications where modal analysis is useful, data acquisition and visualization techniques. Read online here.

Modal Testing on Hockey Sticks (Product Note #009, 2 pages, 340 KB)
How one company is using the CoCo analyzer to "tune" the modal response of their hockey sticks. Read online here.

Modal Analysis on Strut Parts (Product Note #010, 3 pages, 1.2 MB)
Using the CoCo-80, along with Vibrant Technologies’ ME’scope software, to create a dynamic model of an automotive suspension part. Read online here.

Modal Data Acquisition Using the CoCo-80X/90 (Product Note #015, 8 pages, 953.85 KB)
Explains how the CoCo-80X interfaces to the modal analysis software in EDM Modal (Engineering Data Management software) and how the modal data is captured. Read online here.

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